Hypnosis: Trance as a Coping Mechanism (Topics in General Psychiatry)
Charcot was the pioneering pathfinder.http://tokend.org/too-big-a-first-time-story.php
Hypnosis as mental health therapy - Harvard Health
With his colleagues at the Salpetriere in Paris, he employed hypnosis as an investigative tool to explore the psychology of patients with major hysteria. The discovery of the role of unconscious pathogenic ideas in the production of hysterical symptoms provided a basis for theoretical formulations that reached an apogee in the voluminous writings of Pierre Janet. Among those early investigators was Sigmund Freud, who after a visit to Charcot's clinic, initially turned his attention to dissociative phenomena. His interest, however, was soon drawn to the nature and source of the dissociated repressed mental contents and away from the mechanism of dissociation itself.
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Satisfaction Guaranteed! Book is in Used-Good condition. Pages and cover are clean and intact. Used items may not include supplementary materials such as CDs or access codes. May show signs of minor shelf wear and contain limited notes and highlighting. Condition: Used: Good. Book Description Plenum, , In the latter half of the 20th century, two factors contributed to the development of the cognitive-behavioural approach to hypnosis:. Although cognitive-behavioural theories of hypnosis must be distinguished from cognitive-behavioural approaches to hypnotherapy, they share similar concepts, terminology, and assumptions and have been integrated by influential researchers and clinicians such as Irving Kirsch , Steven Jay Lynn , and others.
At the outset of cognitive behavioural therapy during the s, hypnosis was used by early behaviour therapists such as Joseph Wolpe  and also by early cognitive therapists such as Albert Ellis. Hull had introduced a behavioural psychology as far back as , which in turn was preceded by Ivan Pavlov. The American Medical Association currently has no official stance on the medical use of hypnosis.
However, a study published in by the Council on Mental Health of the American Medical Association documented the efficacy of hypnosis in clinical settings. Hypnosis has been used as a supplemental approach to cognitive behavioral therapy since as early as Hypnosis was defined in relation to classical conditioning ; where the words of the therapist were the stimuli and the hypnosis would be the conditioned response. Some traditional cognitive behavioral therapy methods were based in classical conditioning.
It would include inducing a relaxed state and introducing a feared stimuli. One way of inducing the relaxed state was through hypnosis. Hypnotism has also been used in forensics , sports , education, physical therapy , and rehabilitation. Hypnotic methods have been used to re-experience drug states  and mystical experiences. Stage hypnosis can persuade people to perform unusual public feats. Some people have drawn analogies between certain aspects of hypnotism and areas such as crowd psychology, religious hysteria, and ritual trances in preliterate tribal cultures.
Hypnotherapy is a use of hypnosis in psychotherapy. Physicians and psychologists may use hypnosis to treat depression, anxiety, eating disorders , sleep disorders , compulsive gambling , and posttraumatic stress ,    while certified hypnotherapists who are not physicians or psychologists often treat smoking and weight management.
Hypnotherapy is viewed as a helpful adjunct by proponents, having additive effects when treating psychological disorders, such as these, along with scientifically proven cognitive therapies. Hypnotherapy should not be used for repairing or refreshing memory because hypnosis results in memory hardening, which increases the confidence in false memories. Preliminary research has expressed brief hypnosis interventions as possibly being a useful tool for managing painful HIV-DSP because of its history of usefulness in pain management , its long-term effectiveness of brief interventions, the ability to teach self-hypnosis to patients, the cost-effectiveness of the intervention, and the advantage of using such an intervention as opposed to the use of pharmaceutical drugs.
A hypnotic trance is not therapeutic in and of itself, but specific suggestions and images fed to clients in a trance can profoundly alter their behavior. As they rehearse the new ways they want to think and feel, they lay the groundwork for changes in their future actions Barrett described specific ways this is operationalized for habit change and amelioration of phobias.
In her book of hypnotherapy case studies,  she reviews the clinical research on hypnosis with dissociative disorders, smoking cessation, and insomnia, and describes successful treatments of these complaints. In a July article for Scientific American titled "The Truth and the Hype of Hypnosis", Michael Nash wrote that, "using hypnosis, scientists have temporarily created hallucinations, compulsions, certain types of memory loss, false memories, and delusions in the laboratory so that these phenomena can be studied in a controlled environment.
Hypnotherapy has been studied for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. A number of studies show that hypnosis can reduce the pain experienced during burn-wound debridement ,  bone marrow aspirations, and childbirth. Hypnosis is effective in decreasing the fear of cancer treatment  reducing pain from  and coping with cancer  and other chronic conditions. However, according to the American Cancer Society , "available scientific evidence does not support the idea that hypnosis can influence the development or progression of cancer.
Hypnosis has been used as a pain relieving technique during dental surgery and related pain management regimens as well. Researchers like Jerjes and his team have reported that hypnosis can help even those patients who have acute to severe orodental pain. For some psychologists who uphold the altered state theory of hypnosis, pain relief in response to hypnosis is said to be the result of the brain's dual-processing functionality.
This effect is obtained either through the process of selective attention or dissociation, in which both theories involve the presence of activity in pain receptive regions of the brain, and a difference in the processing of the stimuli by the hypnotised subject. The American Psychological Association published a study comparing the effects of hypnosis, ordinary suggestion, and placebo in reducing pain. The study found that highly suggestible individuals experienced a greater reduction in pain from hypnosis compared with placebo, whereas less suggestible subjects experienced no pain reduction from hypnosis when compared with placebo.
Ordinary non-hypnotic suggestion also caused reduction in pain compared to placebo, but was able to reduce pain in a wider range of subjects both high and low suggestible than hypnosis. The results showed that it is primarily the subject's responsiveness to suggestion, whether within the context of hypnosis or not, that is the main determinant of causing reduction in pain. The success rate for habit control is varied. A meta-study researching hypnosis as a quit-smoking tool found it had a 20 to 30 percent success rate,  while a study of patients hospitalised for cardiac and pulmonary ailments found that smokers who used hypnosis to quit smoking doubled their chances of success.
Hypnosis may be useful as an adjunct therapy for weight loss.
A meta-analysis studying hypnosis combined with cognitive behavioural therapy found that people using both treatments lost more weight than people using cognitive behavioural therapy alone. The hypnosis instructs the stomach that it is smaller than it really is, and hypnopedia reinforces alimentary habits. A pilot study found that there was no significant difference in effectiveness between VGB hypnotherapy and relaxation hypnotherapy.
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Controversy surrounds the use of hypnotherapy to retrieve memories, especially those from early childhood or supposed past-lives. The American Medical Association and the American Psychological Association caution against recovered-memory therapy in cases of alleged childhood trauma, stating that "it is impossible, without corroborative evidence, to distinguish a true memory from a false one. American psychiatric nurses, in most medical facilities, are allowed to administer hypnosis to patients in order to relieve symptoms such as anxiety, arousal, negative behaviours, uncontrollable behaviour, and to improve self-esteem and confidence.
This is permitted only when they have been completely trained about their clinical side effects and while under supervision when administering it. A declassified document obtained by the US Freedom of Information Act archive shows that hypnosis was investigated for military applications. According to the document:. The use of hypnosis in intelligence would present certain technical problems not encountered in the clinic or laboratory. To obtain compliance from a resistant source, for example, it would be necessary to hypnotise the source under essentially hostile circumstances. There is no good evidence, clinical or experimental, that this can be done.
It would be difficult to find an area of scientific interest more beset by divided professional opinion and contradictory experimental evidence No one can say whether hypnosis is a qualitatively unique state with some physiological and conditioned response components or only a form of suggestion induced by high motivation and a positive relationship between hypnotist and subject Barber has produced "hypnotic deafness" and "hypnotic blindness", analgesia and other responses seen in hypnosis—all without hypnotizing anyone Orne has shown that unhypnotized persons can be motivated to equal and surpass the supposed superhuman physical feats seen in hypnosis.
The study concluded that there are no reliable accounts of its effective use by an intelligence service in history. Many of these programs were done domestically and on participants who were not informed of the study's purposes or that they would be given drugs. Self-hypnosis happens when a person hypnotises oneself, commonly involving the use of autosuggestion. The technique is often used to increase motivation for a diet , to quit smoking, or to reduce stress. People who practise self-hypnosis sometimes require assistance; some people use devices known as mind machines to assist in the process, whereas others use hypnotic recordings.
Self-hypnosis is claimed to help with stage fright, relaxation, and physical well-being. Stage hypnosis is a form of entertainment, traditionally employed in a club or theatre before an audience. Due to stage hypnotists' showmanship, many people believe that hypnosis is a form of mind control. Stage hypnotists typically attempt to hypnotise the entire audience and then select individuals who are "under" to come up on stage and perform embarrassing acts, while the audience watches. However, the effects of stage hypnosis are probably due to a combination of psychological factors, participant selection, suggestibility, physical manipulation, stagecraft, and trickery.
The idea of music as hypnosis developed from the work of Franz Mesmer. Instruments such as pianos, violins, harps and, especially, the glass harmonica often featured in Mesmer's treatments; and were considered to contribute to Mesmer's success. In their experiments with sound hypnosis, Jean-Martin Charcot used gongs and tuning forks, and Ivan Pavlov used bells.
The intention behind their experiments was to prove that physiological response to sound could be automatic, bypassing the conscious mind. In the s and s, a moral panic took place in the US fearing Satanic ritual abuse. As part of this, certain books such as The Devil's Disciples stated that some bands, particularly in the musical genre of heavy metal, brainwashed American teenagers with subliminal messages to lure them into the worship of the devil, sexual immorality, murder, and especially suicide.
The counteraction on heavy metal in terms of satanic brainwashing is an evidence that linked to the automatic response theories of musical hypnotism. Various people have been suspected of or convicted for hypnosis-related crimes, including robbery and sexual abuse. In , Palle Hardrup shot and killed two people during a botched robbery in Copenhagen. Both were sentenced to jail time. In , a Russian "evil hypnotist" was suspected of tricking customers in banks around Stavropol into giving away thousands of pounds worth of money.
According to the local police, he would approach them and make them withdraw all of the money from their bank accounts, which they would then freely give to the man. The victim did nothing to stop the robber from looting his pockets and taking his cash, only calling out the thief when he was already getting away.
In , the thenyear-old amateur hypnotist Timothy Porter attempted to sexually abuse his female weight-loss client. She reported awaking from a trance and finding him behind her with his pants down, telling her to touch herself. He was subsequently called to court and included on the sex offender list. Besides the primary charge by a year-old woman who he sexually abused in a hotel under the guise of a free therapy session, he also admitted to having sexually assaulted a year-old girl. The central theoretical disagreement regarding hypnosis is known as the "state versus nonstate" debate.
When Braid introduced the concept of hypnotism, he equivocated over the nature of the "state", sometimes describing it as a specific sleep-like neurological state comparable to animal hibernation or yogic meditation, while at other times he emphasised that hypnotism encompasses a number of different stages or states that are an extension of ordinary psychological and physiological processes. Overall, Braid appears to have moved from a more "special state" understanding of hypnotism toward a more complex "nonstate" orientation.
State theorists interpret the effects of hypnotism as due primarily to a specific, abnormal, and uniform psychological or physiological state of some description, often referred to as "hypnotic trance" or an "altered state of consciousness". Nonstate theorists rejected the idea of hypnotic trance and interpret the effects of hypnotism as due to a combination of multiple task-specific factors derived from normal cognitive, behavioural, and social psychology, such as social role-perception and favorable motivation Sarbin , active imagination and positive cognitive set Barber , response expectancy Kirsch , and the active use of task-specific subjective strategies Spanos.
The personality psychologist Robert White is often cited as providing one of the first nonstate definitions of hypnosis in a article:. Hypnotic behaviour is meaningful, goal-directed striving, its most general goal being to behave like a hypnotised person as this is continuously defined by the operator and understood by the client. Put simply, it is often claimed that, whereas the older "special state" interpretation emphasises the difference between hypnosis and ordinary psychological processes, the "nonstate" interpretation emphasises their similarity.
Comparisons between hypnotised and non-hypnotised subjects suggest that, if a "hypnotic trance" does exist, it only accounts for a small proportion of the effects attributed to hypnotic suggestion, most of which can be replicated without hypnotic induction. Braid can be taken to imply, in later writings, that hypnosis is largely a state of heightened suggestibility induced by expectation and focused attention. In particular, Hippolyte Bernheim became known as the leading proponent of the "suggestion theory" of hypnosis, at one point going so far as to declare that there is no hypnotic state, only heightened suggestibility.
There is a general consensus that heightened suggestibility is an essential characteristic of hypnosis. In , Clark L. Hull wrote:. If a subject after submitting to the hypnotic procedure shows no genuine increase in susceptibility to any suggestions whatever, there seems no point in calling him hypnotised, regardless of how fully and readily he may respond to suggestions of lid-closure and other superficial sleeping behaviour.
Ivan Pavlov stated that hypnotic suggestion provided the best example of a conditioned reflex response in human beings; i. Speech, on account of the whole preceding life of the adult, is connected up with all the internal and external stimuli which can reach the cortex, signaling all of them and replacing all of them, and therefore it can call forth all those reactions of the organism which are normally determined by the actual stimuli themselves.
We can, therefore, regard "suggestion" as the most simple form of a typical reflex in man. He also believed that hypnosis was a "partial sleep", meaning that a generalised inhibition of cortical functioning could be encouraged to spread throughout regions of the brain. He observed that the various degrees of hypnosis did not significantly differ physiologically from the waking state and hypnosis depended on insignificant changes of environmental stimuli. Pavlov also suggested that lower-brain-stem mechanisms were involved in hypnotic conditioning.
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Pavlov's ideas combined with those of his rival Vladimir Bekhterev and became the basis of hypnotic psychotherapy in the Soviet Union, as documented in the writings of his follower K. Soviet theories of hypnotism subsequently influenced the writings of Western behaviourally oriented hypnotherapists such as Andrew Salter. Changes in brain activity have been found in some studies of highly responsive hypnotic subjects. These changes vary depending upon the type of suggestions being given.
They may indicate that suggestions genuinely produce changes in perception or experience that are not simply a result of imagination. However, in normal circumstances without hypnosis, the brain regions associated with motion detection are activated both when motion is seen and when motion is imagined, without any changes in the subjects' perception or experience. It is, however, premature to claim that hypnosis and meditation are mediated by similar brain systems and neural mechanisms.
Another study has demonstrated that a colour hallucination suggestion given to subjects in hypnosis activated colour-processing regions of the occipital cortex. Hypnosis is not a unitary state and therefore should show different patterns of EEG activity depending upon the task being experienced.
Studies have shown an association of hypnosis with stronger theta-frequency activity as well as with changes to the gamma -frequency activity. The induction phase of hypnosis may also affect the activity in brain regions that control intention and process conflict. Anna Gosline claims:. Gruzelier and his colleagues studied brain activity using an fMRI while subjects completed a standard cognitive exercise, called the Stroop task. The team screened subjects before the study and chose 12 that were highly susceptible to hypnosis and 12 with low susceptibility.
They all completed the task in the fMRI under normal conditions and then again under hypnosis. Throughout the study, both groups were consistent in their task results, achieving similar scores regardless of their mental state. During their first task session, before hypnosis, there were no significant differences in brain activity between the groups. But under hypnosis, Gruzelier found that the highly susceptible subjects showed significantly more brain activity in the anterior cingulate gyrus than the weakly susceptible subjects.
This area of the brain has been shown to respond to errors and evaluate emotional outcomes. The highly susceptible group also showed much greater brain activity on the left side of the prefrontal cortex than the weakly susceptible group. This is an area involved with higher level cognitive processing and behaviour.
Pierre Janet originally developed the idea of dissociation of consciousness from his work with hysterical patients. He believed that hypnosis was an example of dissociation, whereby areas of an individual's behavioural control separate from ordinary awareness. Hypnosis would remove some control from the conscious mind, and the individual would respond with autonomic, reflexive behaviour. Weitzenhoffer describes hypnosis via this theory as "dissociation of awareness from the majority of sensory and even strictly neural events taking place. Ernest Hilgard , who developed the "neodissociation" theory of hypnotism, hypothesized that hypnosis causes the subjects to divide their consciousness voluntarily.
One part responds to the hypnotist while the other retains awareness of reality. Hilgard made subjects take an ice water bath. None mentioned the water being cold or feeling pain. This showed that, even though the subjects were listening to the suggestive hypnotist, they still sensed the water's temperature. The main theorist who pioneered the influential role-taking theory of hypnotism was Theodore Sarbin. Sarbin argued that hypnotic responses were motivated attempts to fulfill the socially constructed roles of hypnotic subjects.
This has led to the misconception that hypnotic subjects are simply "faking". However, Sarbin emphasised the difference between faking, in which there is little subjective identification with the role in question, and role-taking, in which the subject not only acts externally in accord with the role but also subjectively identifies with it to some degree, acting, thinking, and feeling "as if" they are hypnotised. Sarbin drew analogies between role-taking in hypnosis and role-taking in other areas such as method acting , mental illness, and shamanic possession, etc.
This interpretation of hypnosis is particularly relevant to understanding stage hypnosis, in which there is clearly strong peer pressure to comply with a socially constructed role by performing accordingly on a theatrical stage. Hence, the social constructionism and role-taking theory of hypnosis suggests that individuals are enacting as opposed to merely playing a role and that really there is no such thing as a hypnotic trance.
A socially constructed relationship is built depending on how much rapport has been established between the "hypnotist" and the subject see Hawthorne effect , Pygmalion effect , and placebo effect. Psychologists such as Robert Baker and Graham Wagstaff claim that what we call hypnosis is actually a form of learned social behaviour, a complex hybrid of social compliance, relaxation, and suggestibility that can account for many esoteric behavioural manifestations. Barber, Spanos, and Chaves proposed a nonstate "cognitive-behavioural" theory of hypnosis, similar in some respects to Sarbin's social role-taking theory and building upon the earlier research of Barber.
On this model, hypnosis is explained as an extension of ordinary psychological processes like imagination, relaxation, expectation, social compliance, etc. In particular, Barber argued that responses to hypnotic suggestions were mediated by a "positive cognitive set" consisting of positive expectations, attitudes, and motivation.
Daniel Araoz subsequently coined the acronym "TEAM" to symbolise the subject's orientation to hypnosis in terms of "trust", "expectation", "attitude", and "motivation". Barber et al. An approach loosely based on information theory uses a brain-as-computer model. In adaptive systems, feedback increases the signal-to-noise ratio , which may converge towards a steady state. Increasing the signal-to-noise ratio enables messages to be more clearly received.
The hypnotist's object is to use techniques to reduce interference and increase the receptability of specific messages suggestions. Systems theory , in this context, may be regarded as an extension of Braid's original conceptualization of hypnosis as involving "the brain and nervous system generally". Hypnotic phenomena thus involve not only increased or decreased activity of particular subsystems, but also their interaction.
A central phenomenon in this regard is that of feedback loops, which suggest a mechanism for creating hypnotic phenomena. This society always had close links with the Royal Society of Medicine and many of its members were involved in setting up a hypnosis section at this centre of medical research in London.
A second society, the British Society of Experimental and Clinical Hypnosis BSECH , was also set up a year before, in , and this consisted of psychologists, doctors and dentists with an interest in hypnosis theory and practice. This society only trains health professionals and is interested in furthering research into clinical hypnosis. The American Society of Clinical Hypnosis ASCH is unique among organizations for professionals using hypnosis because members must be licensed healthcare workers with graduate degrees.
As an interdisciplinary organization, ASCH not only provides a classroom to teach professionals how to use hypnosis as a tool in their practice, it provides professionals with a community of experts from different disciplines. The ASCH's missions statement is to provide and encourage education programs to further, in every ethical way, the knowledge, understanding, and application of hypnosis in health care; to encourage research and scientific publication in the field of hypnosis; to promote the further recognition and acceptance of hypnosis as an important tool in clinical health care and focus for scientific research; to cooperate with other professional societies that share mutual goals, ethics and interests; and to provide a professional community for those clinicians and researchers who use hypnosis in their work.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the states induced by hypnotic drugs, see Sleep and Unconsciousness. For the song, see Mesmerise song.
For other uses, see Hypnotized disambiguation and Hypnotist disambiguation. Hypnotherapy Stage hypnosis Self-hypnosis Hypnosurgery. Key figures. Related topics. Hypnotic susceptibility Suggestion Age regression in therapy Hypnotic induction Neuro-linguistic programming Hypnotherapy in the United Kingdom.
Play media. Main article: Hypnotic induction. Main article: Suggestion. Main article: Ideomotor response. Main article: Hypnotic susceptibility. Main article: History of hypnosis. Further information: Autosuggestion. Main article: Hypnotherapy. The neutrality of this section is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page.
Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Addictions   Age regression hypnotherapy or "hypnoanalysis" Cognitive-behavioural hypnotherapy, or clinical hypnosis combined with elements of cognitive behavioural therapy  Ericksonian hypnotherapy Fears and phobias       Habit control    Pain management     Psychotherapy  Relaxation  Reduce patient behavior e.
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Use of Hypnosis in the Treatment of Pain
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