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A flat print is usually made with an attempt to keep the important story visual information within the 16mm frame You do not need an additional "scope" lens to show this kind of print. This is called "adapted scope. Some collectors consider this the best way to have a scope title on 16mm, others frown on it as much of the frame is wasted and blowing up only the middle section causes a loss of resolution. A 16mm scope lens will expand the width 2 times, which makes the image a 2. This is the kind of print that requires an additional scope projector lens for viewing unless you enjoy watching very tall, skinny people, buildings, cars, etc.
True scope 16mm prints are becoming rare and are eagerly sought after by niche collectors who are taken with the wide screen scope process. What is the Film Stock? As noted earlier, nitrate film was in common use until , when safety film gradually became universal. Most 35mm prints available on the collectors' market, and all 16mm prints, are on safety film. However, some older 35mm nitrate features and shorts are still to be found. Most sellers will so identify their films, but it always pays to check any older say pre 35mm print to ensure that the words SAFETY FILM appear along the sprocket hole edge of the film.
Should you acquire a nitrate print, it must be stored in a fireproof container, and shown only in a booth and using equipment that are approved for nitrate film. Don't even think about running a nitrate print unless the equipment and booth are approved for its use! Your life and your equipment are at significant risk if you do. How do you tell the difference? Acetate stock is slightly thicker than polyester about 5.
The thickness can be measured using an inexpensive micrometer. Tear resistance can be checked by trying to tear a piece of the leader assuming it is the same stock as the remainder of the film.
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Acetate will be easy to tear crosswise. Polyester stock is slightly thinner than acetate about 4. This process uses an anamorphic lens to film the picture that compresses the image horizontally by a factor of 2 time as earlier explained. For 35mm film with a magnetic soundtrack, which has an actual frame aspect ratio of 1. For 35mm film with an optical soundtrack, which has an actual frame aspect ratio of 1.
This is what is in use today in most theaters. For 16mm film, magnetic or optical, which has an actual frame aspect ratio of 1. The 16mm CinemaScope image loses a little off the top and bottom of the original 35mm CinemaScope image. Adapted Scope. This is a treatment used to create a non-scope print when the original image was anamorphic, resulting in a 2. The 2. It is a poor system since much of the frame does not carry image, thereby reducing resolution. Scanned Wide Screen Prints. Some studios re-release prints of older Academy ratio 1.papeburmeli.tk/zyfis-mujeres-solteras-y.php
African American Studies Research Guide: Documentary Films
After hard matting at 1. Adapted Academy. This is another method of adapting older Academy ratio films to work with a projector outfitted with a 1. The top and bottom are not cropped, but the entire image is reduced so that it becomes a small square in the middle of the 1. When this is projected it becomes a 1.
This is obviously better than scanning since none of the image is lost, but what you wind up with is an image area that basically is only a little bigger than 16mm. For a short subject like an 7-minute cartoon you might put up this resolution and light loss, but you should be aware of that when buying.
This is only a problem with 35mm prints. In order to minimize disappointment with what you get in a print, it is best to know what the original picture format was when the film was shot and played initially in theatres. Knowing release dates will be very helpful in this. Then try to discern how the print you are getting is formatted. Both should be the same. Then show it in that format. A good rule of thumb is that any picture prior to or so will have been shot in 1. If the print you are looking to buy was made before , and it was re-released recently, you need to ask if it is hard matted at 1.
That tells you that you are getting a scanned print and you will be missing about a third of the original image. Knowing the history behind these prints serves as a good lesson as to what is a TV print as opposed to a "theatrical print" Around Hughes sold RKO and the first thing the buyers did was sell the library to broadcast TV. Individual stations could buy an entire package of 16mm prints and had license to play them for the life of the print.
This was the first major studio package of films made available to broadcast TV and where buyers broadcast the package under a format called "MovieTime USA". The video of the day demanded low contrast prints in order to have a video picture that showed detail in the shadows. Compared to a black and white "theatrical " print, a low contrast TV print appears to be gray and white. These prints are considered originals in spite of their low contrast and appearance of soft focus. Actually the focus is not soft, rather the nature of low contrast is such that the focus gets compromised and appears soft.
If you have absorbed this dissertation and have a reasonable understanding of the material, you'll have no trouble in the film buying market. Yes, you'll make some mistakes, but they will become valuable lessons that will never be forgotten.
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I have left for last the most valuable tip I can give Visit the Internet film forums and ask for references from people who have dealt with that seller. There are some bad apples to avoid but the overwhelming majority of collectors and dealers are fine, honest people who love the thrill of showing film on the big screen.
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If you have yet to experience that thrill, jump in now and join us. Film must be handled with the greatest of care, and cotton gloves will protect film from both dirty and oily hands. Your projection booth, film storage room, etc. These are the result of poor film handling techniques, dirty booths and uncaring projectionists. He worked his changeover magic, skillfully handling curtains, foot lights, house lights, non-synch intermission music, and his very art ensured his anonymity. Films arrive on 2,foot cores or reels, and each reel is spliced to the next and loaded on the platter.
Trailers policy, preview and advertising are appended to the front of the feature, and electronic cue tapes are added to interface with the theater automation that controls everything. The only attention the film receives during the run is re-threading for each show. Indeed, film handler is an accurate description.
When you buy a 35mm film, it will likely be on 2,foot reels or cores. For the safe handling of cores, you will need a 35mm split reel. Some collectors will store their 35mm films on reels, some will store on cores and transfer to 2,foot or 6,foot reels for screening, and the very wealthy may even have lots of those expensive split reels and use them for screening their films on cores.
If you use a platter, you may want to make up your features on 6,foot reels, and then load them to the platter, as this requires but a single splice when loading the platter. When you buy a 16mm film, it will likely be on reels ranging from foot to 2,foot capacity.
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The most common size is 1,foot, which holds about minutes worth of film. Some screen their 16mm features on a single portable projector, re-threading and starting over with each reel. A few use 16mm projectors fitted with electric dowsers and arranged for changeover use. And a very few use professional projectors with 6,foot reel capacity. An entire program and shorts, trailers and a feature can thus be accommodated on a single reel. Unlike platters, however, the reel requires re-winding between showings.
Such projectors are popular with porno and art houses that screen16mm films. There follow some helpful hints for proper film handling. While this is in contradiction to SMPTE and Kodak recommendations, it is founded on the experiences of several respected authorities. If a 35mm film has been stored emulsion in, it should be rewound emulsion out and left for several months prior to showing lest it drift in and out of focus. Thereafter, films should be stored heads out, so rewind after every showing.
Those thirsting for authoritative information of proper storage for film should visit www. It is in PDF format so you can print a copy for your reference. My recommendations are based on the IPI Guide. The best storage is considered by many to be storage in sealed containers with recommended number of Kodak molecular sieve packets placed in the container. Kodak molecular sieve packets may be purchased from Kodak www. They are applied as follows:. I use polyethylene bags, enclosing each reel in a bag with the recommended number of molecular sieves, and then close the flap of the bag which makes it relatively airtight , and store the bagged reels in cans or shipping cases.
Every time I take a film out of storage to view I often keep a film our of storage for several months , I use new molecular sieve packets when re-packaging it for storage. Caution - be sure to read the instructions, as the material within the packets can react violently with water, liberating extreme heat. Do not use damaged or torn packets. Also, if you cut the packets, do not release the contents. Observe the Material Safety Data Sheet provided. Others maintain that the best storage is in ventilated containers so that the film can breathe. If you choose ventilated storage, the use of molecular sieves would be a waste.
Above all, the storage area must be clean and free of dust or other airborne contaminants. The ideal storage temperature for film is low and relatively constant, with a constant relative humidity. Now, temperature is fairly easily controlled by the use of a through-the-wall packaged air conditioner.
However, air conditioners tend to wring moisture from the air, which accounts for the water that drains from the condenser coil. A large humidifier might be connected to a permanent water supply, but for our purposes, a small manually-filled humidifier will serve nicely. I bought mine at Sears. Alternatively, you can arrange for controlled storage at a commercial film vault.
For an idea of what is available and the cost, visit www. More recently, Kodak has announced the opening of its new Pro-Tek Media Preservation Center in Burbank, CA, where it offers secure controlled storage and inspection services. While utilization of facilities such as these may not be appealing to the modest collector, it says a lot about the need for proper storage conditions. The last word — do the best you can with what you have. Vinegar syndrome VS , once begun, is self-catalyzing and the decay cannot be stopped or reversed, except as noted below.
Do you allow others to dominate team discussions? Do you display a calm, even temperament in team discussions? Do you spend most of your time talking and rarely listen? Do you feel relaxed and confident with your team members? Lead your team through a problem solving process in order to resolve one or more recurring problems in your workplace e.
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Search inside document. Why do teams fail to set goals? Yes No Does your team establish team goals and objectives? Does your team develop action plans to meet goals? Does your team set realistic goals? Does your team set reachable targets? Does your team set both short and long-term goals? This film appears very simple, but was very carefully thought out and structured to show the swim as a special ritual, in which the swimmer is separated from daily life and undergoes a transformation.
The clip on the website shows developing shots which follow the action, as the swimmer changes his dry land watch for a waterproof one and becomes shadowy creature of the sea; the transformational effect of filming him against the light as he enters the water was a deliberate choice, not an accident. Shooting: is it steady? Are the camera movements well-motivated, following the action? Use of available light: can we see what we need to see?
Is there excessive glare or darkness? Is the range of situations filmed sufficient to explore the topic, given the time limits imposed by the module? Is there evidence of a good working relationship between the team and the subject s? If used, are non-observational techniques, such as voice-overs and other forms of non-synch sound justified? Is the topic of the film clearly established in relation to the billing in the report? Evidence of learning and reflexive realization as demonstrated in the report billing, quality, fairness and accuracy of self-evaluation 8.
How clear is the explanation of the editing process selection, construction of narrative through the ordering of shots, etc. How fairly does the report evaluate the effectiveness of the teamwork throughout the whole process? How fair and sensitive is the discussion of the nature of the contract between the student team and the subject s and any other relevant ethical issues?
To what extent does the report demonstrate an accurate self-evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the film produced? There was a reason for this. In discussion about how to assess the films and reports, the students were worried about being assessed for technical competence because this was the first time that any of them had made a complete video other than in the training exercises. It was agreed that the assessment guidelines applied to what was being aspired to, rather than necessarily being achieved to perfection.
And finally, to help the markers appreciate the extent of the challenge and the degree of flexibility experienced by the teams during filming, it was agreed to include the preliminary proposal as an appendix to contextualise the learning process and outcomes, but not for this to be assessed. After a long discussion, the students also decided that the assessment of anthropological relevance should only apply to the written report, and appear as an optional criterion in the assessment of editing and postproduction.
The course convenor read the reports. There were two one-hour seminars run as focus groups for assessment where we all watched the films, including the editing tutor. The second marker who followed a similar procedure alone and the external were asked to view all eight films. All films were assessed in the class of 2. Their comments about skills acquisition and their progress in knowledge, thinking and theory, research and reading in the Visual Anthropology module were evidence that the practical work had developed their understanding further than the more classical forms of assessment would have done 10 :.
Filming techniques. Learnt to be tolerant in relation to problem do with the team partner. Became aware of the problems an anthropologist might have in trying to produce visual ethnography. Importance in producing film that represents reality. As the-then external examiner, Dr Garry Marvin wrote:. In both of these courses the students have been encouraged to use their imagination and skills to produce truly original work rather than repeating and commenting on the work of other anthropologists… The ability to design a project on CD ROM with all the necessary research into web resources, the creative use of graphics and the hyperlinks etc and the skills of visual production in terms of design, filming and editing are skills that will certainly have a potential use outside the academic world.
I acted as Assistant Director of the School and Director of the Visual Project which aimed to produce a 25 minute video. They each lead a team equipped with digital camera and sound, and each team had its own daily agenda. The 10 hours of rushes were edited by Jen Hughes, one of the Swansea Visual Anthropology students, into the first version of the film, A Matter of Interpretation. It was a function of the Visual Anthropology module's effectiveness that it had equipped students to be able to train others — this was not a skill that I would have anticipated that they would acquire so quickly and effectively.
This alone was proof that the Visual Anthropology module had provided solid filming skills that could be transferred to a training context. For he Swansea students, the field school was extra-curricular and did not contribute to assessment for their final degree. The participating Glamorgan students were assessed by their written work only.
Assessment criteria have to be associated with the overall learning outcomes and skill acquisition for the module, as well as reflecting disciplinary benchmarking criteria and standards. To discuss assessment we have to know what we are assessing. So why is the assessment of film and multimedia important? For our purposes, I would argue that it is because of the relationship between anthropology and visual practices.
Visual Anthropology taught them to film and edit following the conventions of observational cinema. They had to follow the action, shoot developing shots with a minimal use of zoom, and edit as closely as possible following the order of events in the rushes, using plain cuts, not fade and wipes. The assessment criteria reflected how well the students had understood and worked with these rules. The process of making a film enacts, dramatizes even, and reveals the anthropological research relationship with the subjects. Such relationships reflect an investment of time in the situation being documented.
Even if this is not a long-term personal relationship with everyone in the film before shooting begins, it is a less narrowly opportunistic or exploitative relationship than those found in short sharp shoots for reportage documentaries. Personal accountability, moral, ethical relationships, and a commitment to a broader context of increasing understanding and diversity is surely a mark of anthropological relevance within ethnographic filmmaking. Despite the strength of MacDougall arguments, in anthropology the senses have tended to remain more important as the object of analysis than as a method, and film continues to be viewed with suspicion.